MOLD CLEAN-UP AFTER A HURRICANE IS NOT A DIY PROJECT

Hidden mold on underside of sub-floor after a flood

Hidden mold on underside of sub-floor after a flood

http://www.thedoctorstv.com/videolib/init/8286_

The above link provides some good information on the hazards that are inherent to flooded buildings. Good information in the clip includes:
• Chemicals, such as pesticides, gasoline, hydrocarbons, rotted food, and other harmful agents can be transported indoors with flood waters.

• Animal fecal material, carcasses and pathogens are inherent to flood waters.

• Fungi (mold) grow indoors on drywall, wood, and other cellulose contents.

• Mold that grows indoors can make people sick.

• Moldy drywall must be discarded.

The overall message that water damage to buildings is unhealthy was very clear in the news clip. However, due to the shortness of the clip, information was limited. The public should be aware of that many hazards exist after floods. As reported by the World Health Organization (Dampness and Mould, 2009), other harmful agents in water damaged buildings include bacteria, endotoxins and exotoxins from bacteria, mycotoxins from mold, chemicals released from wet building materials, insects, and other contaminants that can be transported indoors with surface and ground water.

The media clip does fall short relative to its discussion about clean-up. The recommendations from the interviewed mold expert do not emphasize that flood clean-up is not a do-it-yourself project. Although the reporter and expert donned protective gear prior to entering a flooded house, the importance of hazard training and medical clearance for using personal protective equipment is not addressed. This could turn into a situation where a little knowledge could be dangerous.

The issue of restoring wood after a flood was misrepresented in the clip. The expert suggested that unless wood was rotted, abrasive cleaning would effectively restore mold contaminated wood after a flood. This is information is not correct. Wood that has been in contact with the flood water is contaminated with the same chemical and biological agents as the drywall that the expert states must be removed. Abrasively cleaning of wood will only address the outer accessible surfaces. Wood has six sides. Ignoring the surfaces that cannot be accessed for cleaning (interface between bottom plates and flooring, stacked studs, etc.) are typically the most contaminated because they remain wet for the longest periods.

The surfaces with trapped contaminants can cause exposure hazards long after restoration and re-build are complete. Contaminants that remain on wood in floor, ceiling, and wall cavities can be liberated with pressure differentials, physical disturbances, and normal living activities. Since people can react to dead mold and other contaminants that remain after a flood, failure to address the “hidden” surfaces could be quite dangerous, especially to people to young children, elderly people, asthmatics, or those that are immune-compromised. Appropriate remediation scopes for damages from catastrophic water losses, such as those caused by Hurricane Sandy, are paramount to preventing future indoor air quality problems.

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The Shortcomings of Shortcutting A Mold Remediation Project

My mom’s words of wisdom, “Any job worth doing is worth doing right,” never rang

Contaminated drywall must be removed under controlled conditions.

truer than in situations where partial remediation is viewed as being better than no remediation.  Contrary to this misconception, no remediation is better than substandard remediation.  Case in point – a family inherits a home that has been unoccupied for an extended period, and had not maintained for more than ten years.  Water intrusion into the basement and attic caused mold growth to building materials that were in contact with water.  Sustained high humidity resulted in secondary mold growth due to condensation on interior drywall.  Testing revealed concentrations of Penicillium and Aspergillus in the range of 80,000 to 100,000 counts per cubic meter of air.  Outdoor concentrations of spores in these genera were less than 1,000 c/m3.  Toxigenic mold species, such as Stachybotrys chartarum, were also identified.

In the throes of financial difficulties versus living rent-free, the family made a decision to move into the contaminated home and perform remediation in a piecemeal fashion.  They believed that small efforts to remove mold would cumulatively achieve the desired end product of good indoor air quality.  However good their intentions might have been, the reasoning was flawed.  Unlike cosmetic or structural renovation projects, mold remediation cannot safely be performed “a little bit at a time”.  Effective remediation requires removal of mold contamination along with addressing spores that are liberated from areas of actual mold growth.

Attempting to live in a contaminated home while performing remediation one step at a time is similar to paying minimum monthly payments on a high interest rate credit card.  There is no light at the end of the tunnel, and the problem compounds over time.  If one area is effectively remediated, yet contamination remains in other locations, re-contamination to the cleaned area will occur.  Additionally, with ongoing exposures, individuals become sensitized and progressively react to  lower concentrations of mold.

MOLD TEST KITS: Why You Should Not Do-It-Yourself

Using a “do-it-yourself” (DIY) mold test kit to evaluate whether a home has a mold problem makes about as much sense as replacing an annual doctor exam with using a thermometer to take your temperature.  Just as a person could be very ill while maintaining a normal temperature, a home could have a serious mold problem, even though a DIY test was negative.

Designing, executing, and understanding a comprehensive indoor mold assessment is difficult enough for professional mold consultants.  The best ones understand that building dynamics, hidden mold, historical damage, sampling techniques, analytical methods, and many other factors can influence the accuracy and effectiveness of diagnosing indoor mold problems.

Unlike chemical testing, no dose response curves have been developed for mold exposure.  Therefore, sample results will often raise more questions than answers.  Mold spores are always present in indoor environments. They enter buildings through doors and windows, and usually are not a problem unless they have suitable nutrients for growth.  All building materials can support mold growth IF sufficient moisture is present.  Moisture can come from leaks, floods, or excess humidity.

When sufficient moisture is present, certain molds that are usually minor constituents of outdoor air grow disproportionately to predominant outdoor molds that grow on decayed vegetation.  The molds that grow indoors on wet drywall, wood, and other cellulose materials are most frequently in the genera, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Stachybotrys, and Chaetomium.  These molds can present health problems when they grow indoors.  In addition to allergic reactions, triggering of asthma, and infections, many molds that grow indoors produce secondary metabolites, such as toxins.   The tightness of indoor environments can promote exposures and adverse health to occupants of water damaged buildings.

The single best tool in a mold assessment, whether it is performed by a professional or a do-it-yourselfer, is a detailed visual inspection.  The simplest inspection involves observations of mold growth after a water damage event.  If you see it, yes it is there, and must be addressed to prevent air quality problems.  More involved inspection that require professionals are those in which prior unmitigated water damage has been concealed or construction defects result in hidden water damage in ceiling, wall, or floor cavities.

For the do-it-yourself mold tester, the best that can be expected from a home test kit is to identify the type of mold is visibly growing on a surface.  However, if it is growing, the source of moisture must be corrected and the mold must be removed under controlled conditions.  Since remediation procedures are not dictated by the type of, testing is usually a waste of money.  If the area of growth is small and a low likelihood exists for hidden mold, addressing the mold according to EPA guidelines found in A Brief Guide to Moisture, Mold and Your Home (epa.gov) is sufficient.  If the mold covers a large area or hidden mold is suspected, a professional remediator is usually required to avoid hazardous exposures and cross-contamination to unaffected areas.

The worst outcome from a do-it-yourself mold test kit is that negative results will give a false sense of security when in fact hidden mold problems do exist.   False negative are common in culture plate kits (petri dishes) that instruct the user to place the open plate in a room for a specified period of time to collect mold that settles from the air.  The lab reports for settling plates might list several types of mold that grew the petri dish.  However, the data is usually inconclusive at best.  One problem with “settling plate” is that all molds do not settle at the ratio in which they are found in the air.  Therefore, many species can go undetected.  Another issue is that the actual concentrations of mold spores per volume of air cannot be calculated because the sampling method cannot quantify the amount of air to which the culture plate is exposed.  Additionally, the methodology does not address whether the molds entered from outdoors or were from areas of actual indoor mold sources.

Another type of test that might be recommended for the culture plates is to tape the open culture plate to a supply register to allow the air from an operating HVAC system to impact the plate for a specified time.  Unfortunately air exiting from the airducts does not necessarily represent air within the home because the air that passes through a filter before impacting the culture plate.  Additionally, the likelihood that contaminants would actually be released from an area of growth, enter the air stream, be sucked into the return ducts, pass through the filter, and ultimately end up on the culture plate is very low. 

Swab type test kits are commonly available for DIYers.  Directions generally instruct the user to wipe the swab over a small area (usually 1 sq. inch) of suspect mold growth.   The resultant lab report might list several molds that were found in the swab sample, but this method cannot differentiate between settled spores and what might have actually been growing on the surface.   In either case, the results should not be mistaken to represent the moldiness of the whole house.

Still another type of surface sample that can be found in home mold test kits is a tape lift sample, which involves using clear cellophane tape to “lift” suspect mold from a surface.  This type of sample can be useful in identifying not only the type of mold that is present on a surface, but can also differentiate between actual mold growth and spores that settled from the air.   But the sample would be representative of the tested area only and would not provide information on the overall mold conditions in the indoor environment.

Mold testing can be a useful tool in the hands of a knowledgeable investigator that designs a sampling plan to address a question that cannot otherwise be answered.  Unfortunately, even within the mold assessment and remediation industries, few investigators understand the principles of microbiology, building science, engineering, and scientific methods that are required to conduct a meaningful mold investigation.  With so many variables and limitations in mold testing and analytical methods, “do-it-yourself” mold test kits are generally a waste of time and money.

HOW TO IDENTIFY HIDDEN MOLD, CHEMICALS, AND OTHER IAQ PROBLEMS BEFORE RENTING

Buying or renting an apartment, office or condominium in a multistory building presents challenges beyond the structural and indoor air quality issues that are anticipated when purchasing a single family dwelling. Most prospective home buyers understand the importance of hiring an independent third party home inspector before the purchase of a house. If a buyer has previously experienced illnesses associated with mold, bacteria, and other contaminants in water damaged buildings (WBD’s), a mold assessment is often requested in addition to the home inspection and seller’s disclosure statement. Although the same types of due diligence can be requested for multi-story apartments and condominiums, numerous complexities associated with these multi-family dwellings diminish the likelihood of gathering accurate information.

Identifying issues that could negatively impact indoor air quality can be especially troublesome in rental properties due to policies, practices, and procedures that hinder accountability. Some of these inherent issues include frequent tenant turnover, less stringent disclosure requirements, tenant abuse, poor maintenance, low quality building materials, property management by outside contractors, bylaws of home owners associations, and delayed or unreported damages. Thoroughness and persistence are required prior to signing a rental agreement. Potential health hazards include mold, pesticides, animal and pest allergens, lead, and asbestos, as well as volatile organic compounds from paint cleaning products, carpeting, and building materials.

How to Spot Telltale Signs of Concealed Damage

1. Specific Unit Inspection: Many rental properties can be removed from a list of potentials during an initial walkthrough. Of course this requires that a prospective renter see the actual that he/she would rent. Many property owners have “models” that can be initially viewed, but available rentals cannot be inspected until current tenants move and repairs are completed. A lease should not be signed until the renter (and his/her inspector if desired) approves the unit to be occupied.
2. Uneven Paint: Cracks in drywall seams, different shades of paint, blistered paint, or bumpy textures, especially in the lower corners of

Cracked paint in upper corner of exterior wall signifies water damage and hidden mold

exterior walls, under upper unit bathrooms and kitchens, at the lower corners of windows, and along the lower walls outside of bathtubs and showers, should raise red flags about insufficient water damage repairs, with the likelihood of underlying mold and bacteria contamination.
3. Under Sinks and Vanities: Water stains, visible mold growth, delaminated bases in cabinets, drip stains on walls, and musty type odors are indicative of historical water damage, with the possibility of hidden damage to the flooring below the cabinets, as well as in the wall cavity behind the cabinets. New cabinet bases under sinks can also signify that the base was severely damaged and the floor might remain damaged.
4. Peeling or Uneven Paint in Ceilings above Kitchens or Bathrooms: Uneven paint might represent repair from a toilet overflow or leak, pipe break, insufficient caulking, or other condition that caused top-down water intrusion from an upper unit. Since water from a bathroom can be especially contaminated, extra care should be taken to inspect the ceiling. A flashlight shined at an angle will often reveal the damage. If the drywall appears to have been replaced, documentation should be requested to confirm that joists, subflooring, and other damaged structural members were also appropriately remediated.

Hidden mold behind new baseboard molding

5. New Baseboard Moldings in Bathrooms, Laundry Rooms, and Kitchens: Installation of new vinyl, composite, or wood baseboard moldings is a common practice to cover up the lower edges of walls that were previously affected by a flood, persistent leak, or chronic water damage. When new baseboards are present, check for signs of uneven paint above the baseboards that might indicate that paint was applied over water damaged drywall.
6. Stains under Vinyl Flooring around a Toilet, Tub, or Sink: Chronic water seepage under vinyl flooring will often show up as a slightly darker plume around the source. The stain is usually apparent from the topside, but top surface of the vinyl is not usually altered.
7. Damage to Window Sills or Along the Lower Edges of Doorwalls and Windows: Drywall and wood around doorwalls and windows that have been repeatedly or chronically wet will typically display signs of damage, such as cracks, blistered paint, bumpy or uneven surfaces, and crumbling or weakened drywall. The underlying structures and backsides of drywall are likely to be contaminated if such conditions exist.

Mold on drywall around furnace was caused by leaking condensate drain pan

8. Damage around the Furnace: In most multistory apartments and condominiums, the furnaces are located in closets within the apartment or in a closet area on a balcony or patio. Check for signs of leaks from units above, as well as on and around the furnace, which is often on a wood platform with attached drywall. Damage is frequently caused by leaks from the condensate drain pan, which can get plugged with particulates. Drip stains and rust can often be seen on metal along the outside of a furnace that has not been properly maintained.
9. Rust on Vents and Registers: Excess moisture on vents and registers can be caused by condensation in the indoor environment and/or excess moisture the HVAC system.
10. Chemical Type Odors: New carpeting odors should not be detectable after a few weeks if proper ventilation is provided. If odors are present, find out when the carpeting was installed and request information from the manufacturers’ of the carpet, pad and glue. If no new carpet has been installed, ask about cleaning solutions and type of paint. The MSDS (material safety data sheets and manufacturers’ specification sheets should be made available.

Questions to Ask

  • Request the service and repair logs for the specific unit, as well as the unit above.
  • What is the policy for reporting and repairing water damage? Are procedures in place for handling mold after the source of water is repaired? Who removes mold if found?
  • How are emergency situations reported after offices are closed?
  • Does the property owner’s insurance policy cover personal injuries associated with water damage and mold?
  • Does the property owner or his insurance cover contents that are damaged by water? If so, what is covered, and what are the coverage limits. The answer is likely to be no. Renters should have insurance to cover contents.
  • What types of pesticides are applied? How are tenants notified of pending application? Who does the application? If the building was built prior to 1975, have lead and asbestos surveys been performed. If so, ask to see reports. If not done, and the building is old, the property should not be considered for rental.
  • What is the policy for inspection of the HVAC system and for filter changes?

“Sufficient epidemiological evidence is available from studies conducted in different countries and under different climatic conditions to show that the occupants of damp or mouldy buildings, both houses and public buildings, are at increased risk of respiratory symptoms, respiratory infections and exacerbation of asthma. Some evidence suggests increased risks of allergic rhinitis and asthma. Although few intervention studies are available, their results show that remediation of dampness problems can reduce adverse health outcomes.”

Dampness and Mould, World Health Organization, 2009, section 5.1

http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/43325/E92645.pdf

Mold Remediation: Standards of Care are More Important than Regulatory Requirements

Painting over mold is not appropriate remediation

“Since mold is not a regulated contaminant, contractors have the freedom to create their own methods and products to treat or remediate mold – Right”?  This argument, which is often disguised as a question) is frequently touted by inexperienced, ignorant, or unethical mold remediators and remediation wannabe’s.  In asking such a question, they are supposedly seeking my professional opinion.  However, the questioner becomes argumentative when my answer does not agree with the desired response. 

Interestingly, individuals asking this question seldom sustain successful businesses, and often become defendants in negligence lawsuits.  Napoleon Hill in Think and Grow Rich teaches that successful people do not reveal what they hope to hear when asking questions.  Instead, successful people are those that seek truth, have vision, and refuse to accept failure.  Successful mold remediators are those that choose to align themselves with masterminds within industry, professionals that not only provide great services, but work to promote ethics and knowledge.    Ethical contractors seek out the most discerning industrial hygienists for pre and post remediation assessment, and they also insist upon doing a job the right way (source removal and detailed cleaning) regardless of who pays the bill.

State licensing for mold remediation contractors will not halt charlatans who use fear tactics to sell quick (but inappropriate) fixes.   The building industry is an excellent example of how licensing fails the consumer.  Poor construction practices are a primary cause of mold problems in residential and commercial buildings.  Unfortunately, licensed contractors that cause mold problems due to substandard building practices receive little more than a slap on the wrist from the state licensing departments.   

Excellence in the mold remediation industry is achieved by:

  • Hard work, both in job performance and promotion of ethical practices within the industry
  • Consumer education
  • Training
  • Alliances, both within the remediation industry and with sister industries, such as builders, HVAC professionals, engineers, architects, and the medical community
  • Accountability in the form of policing within professional organizations in the indoor air quality industry

DAMMED ICE: MARCH IS TIME TO CHECK THE ATTIC FOR MOLD AND WATER DAMAGE

Dammed Ice

In winter months, they can be spotted throughout the northern regions of the United States.  At first they might seem harmless.  Some even sparkle as the winter sun reflects from the stalactite-like structures.  They are ice dams, and these giant icicles are surefire predictors of damned indoor air quality.

Ice dams are caused when the temperature on the upper part of a roof is warmer than on the lower edges.   The melting snow freezes at the colder lower edges, creating dams in the eaves troughs (gutters).  Problems start when the dammed ice begins to melt, and water backs up under shingles, seeking the paths of least resistance.

Water that backs up under shingles and runs into the attic, insulation, walls, and ceilings often remains undetected.  However, hidden within the wet cavities are feeding frenzies for mold and other nasty microorganisms.  Sustained  moisture causes structural damage, odors, and biological growth.       

Consequences of Dammed Ice  In most regions of the US, ice dams melt before March, and signs of  water damage begin to appear.  Some indicators of water damage from ice damming include:

•             Curling and cupping of shingles

•             Stains on ceilings and walls

•             Stains on the underside of a roof deck

•             Mold growth on wood structures in the attic

Drip stains on the topside of insulation and drywall ceiling

•             Drip stains on insulation in the attic

•             Oxidized nails on the underside of a roof deck

•             Musty or mold type odors

 If signs of damage from ice damming are discovered, a qualified professional should be called upon to evaluate structural damage, assess mold growth,  and develop a safe remediation plan.   A qualified consultant will not only provide recommendations for addressing visible mold and water damage, but will also identify areas that should be evaluated for hidden damage. To prevent cross-contamination during invasive investigations into suspect cavities, personal protection, HEPA-filtration, and partition barriers should be used.   An ounce of prevention is priceless when hidden mold contamination is found, especially in a home with immune compromised individuals.

  Remediation

Effective remediation involves two components: (1) removal of the mold and (2) addressing spores in the air and on surfaces.  Removal of attic mold caused by ice damming typically requires removal of the affected roof decking, as the growth is not limited to visible surfaces.  Trusses, joists, and other wood roof members can usually be cleaned using some type of abrasive cleaning.  One of the best abrasive cleaning methods for attics is dry ice blasting.  This method is not only less labor intensive than sanding or scrubbing, it is more effective because the dry ice freezes the surface of the moldy substrate.  Dry ice blasting also facilitates cleaning of crevices and hard to reach areas.  As with all mold remediation, appropriate containment measures, personal protection, and engineering controls must be employed.

  Remediation after ice damming generally requires removal of the attic insulation.  Insulation that is directly impacted by water loses its efficiency.   Insulation in proximityof mold growth must be removed because of cross-contamination.  Aerosolizing of mold spores, fragments and other propagules that settle onto insulation can cause adverse health effects.  After insulation is removed from an attic, surfaces must be cleaned to remove particulate debris and settled spores.

Removal of attic insulation also allows for a thorough inspection of the topsides of drywall ceilings.  Assessment of staining patterns can provide clues about areas of potential hidden water intrusion into wall cavities.  Drywall with visible mold growth on the topside of ceilings must be removed under appropriate containment.

 Appropriate mold remediation after ice damming is necessary to protect the air quality within an indoor environment and prevent structural damage.  Re-construction after remediation must be executed in a manner to correct the conditions that caused ice damming in the first place.  The most common approaches to preventing dammed ice involve installation of appropriate insulation, ventilation and vapor barriers.  Roofing contractors should provide warranties and be held accountable for these issues.

Mold and ice crystals on the underside of a roof deck

Can This, Not That: How To Preserve Contents After Mold Infestation

There are no simple answers to questions that arise regarding saving personal belongings and furniture after an indoor environment is contaminated with mold.  Generally, from an insurance perspective, only items that are directly impacted by water from a covered water loss are covered for cleaning or replacement.  However, contents that are impacted by spores, mold fragments, mold toxins, and volatile organic compounds that are liberated from areas of actual mold growth must be addressed to prevent cross-contamination when moved to a new environment or returned after a structure is remediated.   Decisions on restorable must be made on a case by case basis, and are dependent on numerous factors, including:

  • The severity of the airborne contamination
  • The effectiveness of capture and containment methods if contents are present during structural remediation
  • The length of time in which the contents were exposed
  • The origin of the water loss, clean water versus sewage or other contaminated water source
  • Humidity control
  • The sensitivity or susceptibility of occupants

The primary objective of remediation, whether for structure or contents, should be protection of health. Financial practicality might be considered for low level contamination, but should not be a major criterion for immune-compromised or other sensitized individuals.  Compared to the devastating emotional and health consequences that many people experience with repeated exposure to contaminated contents, financial concerns are inconsequential.

Some people are unable to salvage any items from a contaminated home, while some individuals experience no adverse health symptoms if all items are saved.  For the majority of the population, a combination of cleaning and discarding proves to be effective.

The following guidelines are designed to address content restoration for healthy individuals in homes with low to moderate contamination.

CONTENT DECISION MAKING

 A.  Separate contents according to porosity.

    1. Hard surfaced items, such as metal, plastic, sealed wood, and glass.
    2. Semi-porous items, such as unsealed wood, stone, leather.
    3. Porous items, such as cardboard, paper, fabric, and canvas.
    4. Items to Discard
      1. Items that display visible growth
      2. Porous padded items, such as pillows, upholstered furniture that are exposed to a highly contaminated environment or exposed for extended time
      3. Mattresses that are exposed to a highly contaminated environment or exposed for extended time
      4. Books, paper, and stuffed animals that are exposed to a highly contaminated environment or exposed for extended time

B.  Porous, padded items with short exposure to low concentrations of mold

  1. Agitate books, papers, photos, etc. over the inlet of a HEPA-filtered air scrubber.  HEPA-vacuum.
  2. Porous padded items, HEPA-vacuum, agitate/compress, HEPA-vacuum again.

C.   Hard Surfaced Items

  1.   Clean by HEPA-vacuuming and damp-wiping
  2. Use compressed air to clean cracks and crevices
  3. Submerse glass, dishes, pots, pans, or clean in dishwasher

D.  Clothing

  1. Launder washable item with detergent, dry in dryer
  2. Select several representative items (fluffy sweater, wool coat, silk blouse) for dry-cleaning.  Select a dry cleaner that uses special procedures for mold-contaminated items.  The procedures should include filtering of the fluid to remove mold spores.  Once cleaned, items are to be tested using both direct exam and culturable dust sample method.  Test results should demonstrate that target fungi, such as Penicillium, Chaetomium, Aspergillus, and Stachybotrys, are not present. 

E.  Appliances

  1. Items with insulation are not likely salvageable if exposed to high concentrations of mold or if exposed for a long period.   If exposure was short and concentrations were low, the items should be professional cleaned by disassembly, using a combination of compressed air, HEPA-vacuuming and damp-wiping.
  2. Items without insulation should be disassembled and cleaned using compressed air, HEPA-vacuuming and damp-wiping.

F.  Art Work

  1. Remove craft paper backing and discard
  2. Clean by positioning the painting of the inlet of a HEPA-filtered air scrubber.  Starting at the top of the painting, use an art brush to systematically brush toward the bottom.  Repeat with a clean brush.  HEPA-vacuum and damp-wipe the frame.

Making decisions to discard items with high intrinsic or monetary value, such as antiques, memorabilia, and photographs, can be especially troubling when someone is already dealing with the health, emotional, or financial consequences from a mold infestation.  When possible, questionable items should be stored in sealable containers so that decisions can be made at a time when health and stress levels have improved.   

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