Cladosporium is Not Always Harmless

Cladosporium cladosporioides will frequently colonize on damp wood, while Cladosporium sphaerspermum will colonize on damp insulation

Recently, I reviewed several reports from other consultants who discounted the presence of Cladosporium in spore trap air samples, claiming that this mold was not of concern because it was the most common in the outdoor sample.  Following are a few reasons why their conclusions could be faulty:

  1. Cladosporium found in air samples is often considered non-problematic because Cladosporium is generally the most common mold found in outdoor air.  However, if there is actual growth of Cladosporium indoors, which would require excess unplanned moisture, other contaminants that are inherent to water damaged buildings will also be present.  When conditions exist for indoor mold and bacteria growth, endotoxins, mycotoxins, spores, glucans, and other allergens and inflammatory agents will be present.
  2. Generally, the first molds to colonize on wet building materials are Penicillium and Aspergillus.  These two genera cannot be differentiated in spore trap samples and are often under-reported.
  3. When only the genus can be identified in samples, as with spore trap methodology, indoor and outdoor fungal ecologies cannot be conclusively compared.  Cladosporium found outdoors might be Cladosporium herbarum, which is commonly found on decayed vegetation, while the Cladospoirum indoors could be Cladosporium sphaerospermum, which grows on water damaged insulation.
  4. Even if Cladosporium is the same species as outdoors, sensitized individuals could react when concentrations are elevated indoors.

Lesson learned:  Spore trap air sampling alone is a very inconclusive tool for assessing the moldiness of an indoor environment.  Claims that Cladosporium is not a problem can be faulty.

Recommendations:

A detailed visual investigation is the single most important part of a mold investigation.  Sampling should only be performed to answer a question.  Spore trap samples cannot conclusively answer most questions.  A combination of air, dust, and surface samples that are analyzed by culturing or MSQPCR (Mold Specific Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction) is typically necessary.

Featured In October Women’s Health: “Beat Bad Air Days”

Women's Health | October 2010

Women's Health | October 2010

Extra! Extra! Read all about it! It’s finally on news stands! We’re featured in the October issue of Women’s Health Magazine. The article, “Beat Bad Air Days”  begins on page 76. The article covers indoor air quality and I have the last word which can be found on page 79.

Connie Morbach To Be Featured In October “Women’s Health” Magazine!

Women's Health | July/August CoverI’m elated to announce I will be featured in the October issue of the nationally published “Women’s Health” magazine. I had the opportunity to speak with Women’s Health writer Kate Bowers giving my views on the importance of indoor air quality: what are the risks of household pollutants and what can people do to improve indoor air quality and more.

I’m excited to declare the CleanliNEST™ Crusade is picking up national steam. Here’s to everyone breathing easier!

Take a moment to check out the free iPhone and iPod Workout App from Women’s Health at the link below. Nice workout tool at an even nicer price!

Click here for the Women’s Health Workout Lite App

Crawlspaces & Ventilation: 10 Fun Facts & Random Observations

1. Inside the living space of a property, proper ventilation is absolutely crucial to the health, safety, and overall comfort of the occupants inside the home.

2.  Standards and guidelines have been established to specify minimum ventilation rates and other measures intended to provide indoor air quality that is acceptable to human occupants and that minimizes adverse health effects. More info here:  http://eetd.lbl.gov/ie/viaq/v_rates_1.html

3.  Improving the overall air quality inside a property can be achieved by two methods:

•    Exhausting air contaminants from the building
•    Removing contaminants from the air stream using filtration and/or absorption technologies (i.e. HEPA filtration and activated carbon)

Since most residential properties do not have access to proper filtration or absorption technologies, exhaust ventilation is most practical and commonly used.

4. In addition to improper ventilation, excessive or chronic water intrusion into the property, especially the crawlspace, will contribute to the growth of certain microorganisms.  This can lead to mold infestation impacting Indoor Air Quality, and even more destructive structural damage such as wood decay or dry rot.

5. Water intrusion into the crawlspace will often cause damage to flooring systems (i.e. cupping of hardwood floors, grout separation in tile floors, etc.), wood decay, and oxidation or rusting of metal strapping/hardware.

6. Water enters a crawlspace in either liquid or vapor phase by four moisture transfer mechanisms:

•    Liquid water (i.e. plumbing/sewer leaks, high groundwater table, drainage or exterior flooding)
•    Capillary suction or wicking (i.e. moisture being drawn through concrete footing from saturated exterior soils)
•    High moisture laden air (i.e. elevated humidity from atmospheric conditions entering the crawlspace through vents)
•    Vapor diffusion (i.e. moisture in the vapor phase moving through building materials)

7. Most properties are constructed with vents that are intended to remove moisture from the air in a crawlspace by cross-ventilation.   However, the introduction of moist air from outdoors can actually increase the relative humidity in a crawlspace.

8. Due to stack effect and vapor diffusion, which is a very powerful force, moisture in a crawlspace will seek dry areas.  When moist air comes in contact with  a surface that is colder than the  air, condensation will occur.  Condensation can develop on uninsulated plumbing pipes in the crawlspace, on the underside of a sub-floor, or even the attic roof deck.  Interestingly, many houses with exposed wet soil in a crawlspace also have mold and water damage due to condensation on the underside of the roof deck. 

9. If vapor diffusion from the soil, water intrusion from poor drainage, unmitigated plumbing leaks, or infiltration of moist air exist in a crawlspace, one or more of the following is usually observed:

  •   Surface mold growth, structural damage, and health issues
  •   Termite or other pest infiltration
  •   Accumulation of odors  
  •   Termite or other pest infestation

10.  The best way to mitigate crawlspace moisture is to treat the crawlspace as a conditioned space by (1) insulating walls with foam panels, (2) seal the crawlspace floor and walls with heavy gauge polyethylene or vinyl encapsulation system, with the seams sealed tightly at all edges and overlaps, (3) seal the rim joists with two-part closed cell foam.

The Surgeon General’s Call to Action Report Promotes Healthy Homes

The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to promote Healthy Homes Report looks at the many ways housing can affect health. The purpose of the report is to initiate a national dialogue about the importance of healthy homes. “The home is the centerpiece of American life,” said Steven K. Galson, then acting Surgeon General at the time of the report. “We can prevent many diseases and injuries that result from health hazards in the home by following the simple steps outlined in this Call to Action.” The report urges Americans to “improve air quality in their homes by installing radon and carbon monoxide detectors, eliminating smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke, and controlling allergens that contribute to asthma and mold growth.”

Follow the link here http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bookshelf/br.fcgi?book=hssurggen&part=cta-home to view the entire Healthy Home Report from teh surgeon General’s office.

How Much Mold and Bacteria Are On Your Walls?

This is a healthy home idea from York Wallcoverings: YorkGuard® Anti-Microbial wallcoverings. This unique contract wallpaper is perfect for healthcare facilities and other public spaces but can also be used for residential homes. YorkGuard is EPA approved and hospital tested.

York’s unique Granshield technology (diagramed above) protects against mold, mildew, bacteria and odor causing germs and does not leech toxic chemicals or heavy metals. The anti-microbial properties work continuously on both sides of the wallcovering and comes with a 5-year warranty.

Obviously you’ll want to apply this product over a pre-tested, clean, mold-free surface. This is a great product for immuno-compromised individuals and allergy sufferers to help protect their homes from bacteria, mold and poor indoor air quality. Learn more about YorkGuard Anti-Microbial Wallcoverings at www.yorkwall.com/yorkguard or call them at 1-800-455-9913.

Science of Spring Cleaning Tip: Clearing The Air On Ionizers

Air ionizers do not get rid of particulate matter. They change the location of the particulate by charging the particles, which then attach to oppositely charged objects such as walls, ceilings, floors, computers, and tables.  Particles may become airborne again as cleaning begins.

Interview: The Craig Fahle Show On WDET Public Radio | Topic: Avoiding An Unhealthy Money Pit

The Dirty Secret On Foreclosures: Avoiding An Unhealthy Money Pit. WDET Public Radio host, Craig Fahle, interviews me on the topic of hidden hazards when purchasing a foreclosed home. Learn what to look out for and and tips on protecting your potential investment.

Insurance Claims, Contractors, Homeowners: Why Can’t We all Play Nice? Here Are Seven Steps That Can Help…

After a fire or water loss, which can result in mold contamination, the only goal of most homeowners is to have competent and timely restoration that will protect both the indoor air quality as well as the asset value of the property. Similarly, the goals of good contractors are to restore the home, be paid for the services, and have a happy customer. The goals of reputable insurance companies are to restore the home to pre-loss conditions and pay a fair market price for the services. Since these goals are not mutually exclusive, they all can be realized with little or no conflict, right?

Most people who have experienced such losses are probably raising their eyebrows as they whisper, “Yeah right,” to the question. Unfortunately, many factors, including policy exclusions for mold, poor documentation from homeowners, greedy contractors, and overburdened insurance adjustors, can cause conflicts, delays, disappointments, and antagonism during the restoration of a covered water or fire loss.

At times, little can be done by the homeowner to mitigate antagonism if an adjuster takes on a confrontational demeanor from the get go. However, in many cases, proactive measures that begin at the time an insurance policy is purchased empower homeowners to steer an unfortunate loss in a harmonious manner. The following “to do” list for the insured party will go a long way toward making sure that the insurance company, contractors, and homeowners play together in the same sandbox without throwing sand in each other’s eyes.

  1. Understand the insurance policy before purchase. Ask questions about mold riders, sump pump and drain coverage, covered water losses, water damage after fires, smoke and soot damage, odor mitigation, and deductibles.
  2. Research and retain a list of reputable water damage, fire, and mold inspection companies and restoration contractors so that you can be in control of who is hired to do the work.
  3. Have your home inspected by a qualified inspection company that can document conditions relative to water damage and mold before you ever have a loss. This step can prevent claim denials due to poor maintenance or historical damage.
  4. Retain records of prior losses and repairs.
  5. Retain photographs and receipts of furnishings and belongings.
  6. Have realistic expectations regarding repairs.
  7. All documents, including the insurance policy, should be stored in a fireproof safe at home or at another location.

Just like a group of kids in a sandbox, bullies exist on both sides of the fence with insurance losses.  Courtesy, common sense and commitments to doing the right thing are sometimes overshadowed by fear, greed, and hidden agendas. I still believe that it is wise to be prepared and try to play nice before calling in the troops.

Caring for Aging Parents Podcast with WWJ-AM 950 Reporter, Pat Sweeting

WWJ-AM 950 Radio

WWJ-AM 950 Reporter: Pat Sweeting

Since 1981, Pat Sweeting has been a valued employee of the nation’s oldest commercial radio station, where there’s always something to keep the adrenaline pumping in overdrive. Pat joined WWJ Newsradio 950 as a news anchor and reporter. Over the years, she has interviewed everyone from Presidents to Hollywood stars to a Grand Wizard of the Michigan Ku Klux Klan as he was pelted with vegetables by passing protestors. Pat has also been able to work on breaking news and award winning stories.

For years you’ve also heard Sweeting bring you health and lifestyle news in a trio of feature reports: “60 Seconds on Health”, “Your Health” and “Prescription for Health.” She has now re-focused her efforts towards more general reporting, but continues to watch for interesting and exciting medical and lifestyle news from doctors, hospitals and universities at home and around the world.

PODCAST ONE: Pat speaks with Environmental Scientist and Indoor Air Quality & Mold Expert Connie Morbach, M.S., CHMM, CIE on the merits of having your home inspected before renovating or putting it on the market. Here’s the link to the podcast: http://67.72.16.166/wwj/2293214.mp3

PODCAST TWO: Pat and Connie also discuss on her Caring for Aging Parents 03/26 podcast, in-home air quality and its implications for Aging In Place. Listen to the podcast here: http://67.72.16.166/wwj/2293210.mp3

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